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Calling all campaigners

Do you want to see change in your borough? For inspiration from case studies of boroughs making changes to their streets, visit Boroughs taking action.
Download media resources or read relevant research, and for tips on how to seek change, here are some pointers on how to make the streets where you live and work healthier:

Review the Healthy Streets Scorecard information for your borough. The Scorecard contains the evidence you need to ask for change.

Consider and define what you want to change.

Choose who you need to influence for change, for example this will usually be local government. What can your council do to bring about the change? In some instances, you may need to influence central government, people’s behaviour, or inspire others to call for change too.

Speak to others in the community. Become a member of one of the coalition local groups. Approach community groups, the school PTA or school Headteacher, park friends’ groups, local active travel organisations and get other people interested and talking about the change needed. Work collaboratively with contacts and local organisations.

Use the information about your borough from the Scorecard, as well as other sources of information (e.g. articles in the newspaper, published academic papers, council-published traffic numbers, congestion and pollution levels, government policy on climate emergency, polls and surveys by active travel organisations) to showcase why the change is necessary and ask for improvements to be made.

Call for action by organising a petition, writing an email or letter, meeting with your ward councillors and the councillor responsible for transport or environment, raise your concerns at ward meetings and contact your Mayor or other senior officials responsible for your community. If you use social media, you can call for change on social media platforms, and encourage others to call for action too.


Reports, guides and research

Low Traffic Neighbourhoods

Video presentation
Outlines the case for Low Traffic Neighbourhoods, research findings and evidence for policy.
Professor Rachel Aldred,  Active Travel Academy (2022)

Department for Transport review of Low Traffic Neighbourhood schemes, including a review of existing evidence, analysis of a survey of local authorities and a survey of residents living within four scheme areas, as well as interviews with stakeholders.
Low Traffic Neighbourhoods; Research Report
Ipsos for the DfT (March 2024)

Summarising new and emerging evidence on Low Traffic Neighbourhoods, and how they fit into wider transport planning goals.
London’s Low Traffic Neighbourhoods: an emerging evidence base
Possible, Active Travel Academy (2021)

Evidence from Waltham Forest LTNs found residents increased walking (115 mins/wk) and cycling (20 mins/wk) relative to people living elsewhere in Outer London. Vehicle ownership decreased by 7% after 3 years, relative to control group. No increase in emergency service response times, 18% reduction in crime after 3 years, 75% reduction in road injury collision risk. Subscription required to read full article.
Low traffic neighbourhoods and population health
Laverty Anthony A., Goodman A., Aldred R.
BMJ 2021;372:n443

Research paper
Six year longitudinal study found a strong and consistent relationship between infrastructure and uptake. Some evidence of reduced car ownership and/or use. Low Traffic Neighbourhoods may have very high value for money (as much as 50:1 to 200:1).
Impacts of active travel interventions on travel behaviour and health: Results from a five-year longitudinal travel survey in Outer London
Rachel Aldred, Anna Goodman, James Woodcock, Journal of Transport & Health (March, 2024)

  • Economic and other benefits

Research paper
Health economic benefit of £724 m from interventions costing £80 m.
Major investment in active travel in outer London: impacts on travel behaviour, physical activity and health.
Aldred R., Woodcock J., Goodman A., Journal of Transport & Health (March, 2021)

TfL report on how LTNs benefit local shops.
Walking & cycling: the economic benefits

Commissioned by Living Streets to make the case for public realm to be a higher priority and for greater investment in walking friendly streets and spaces.
Making the Case for Investment in the Walking Environment: A Review of the Evidence
Sinnett, D., Williams, K., Chatterjee, K. and Cavill, N., (2011)

  • Emergency services

Research paper
No evidence that emergency response times are made worse inside low traffic neighbourhoods, and the response times are perhaps improved on boundary roads.
The Impact of Introducing a Low Traffic Neighbourhood on Fire Service Emergency Response Times, in Waltham Forest, London
Goodman, A., Laverty, A., & Aldred, R., SocArXiv (November, 2020)

Opinion piece
With the emergency services often cited by opponents of cycle infrastructure and low traffic neighbourhoods, a student paramedic puts forward an evidence-based case for safer streets.
The Paramedic Case for Safer Streets
Jules Mattsson, Student Paramedic (November, 2020)

  • Equity

Includes accounts from disabled people of their experience of living in London boroughs with LTNs. It also suggests measures to improve accessible travel both within LTNs & elsewhere.
Pave The Way: The impact of Low Traffic Neighbourhoods on disabled people, and the future of accessible Active Travel
Transport for All

90% of Londoners across different income and ethnicity groups live on residential streets that could potentially benefit from low traffic neighbourhoods.
LTNs for all? Mapping the extent of London’s new Low Traffic Neighbourhoods
Adred, R. and Verlinghieri, E., University of Westminster, Active Travel Academy (2020)

  • Crime

Research paper
10% decrease in total street crime after introduction of LTN in Waltham Forest, and 18% decrease after 3 years. An even larger reduction was observed for violence and sexual offences, the most serious subcategory of crime.
The Impact of Introducing a Low Traffic Neighbourhood on Street Crime, in Waltham Forest, London
Goodman, A., & Aldred, R., SocArXiv (January, 2021)

  • Impact on boundary roads, pollution and congestion

Research paper
Annual driving by residents living in four new LTNs introduced in 2020 decreased by 6% in the two years since their introduction compared to other control areas in the London borough.
The Impact of 2020 Low Traffic Neighbourhoods on Levels of Car/Van Driving among Residents: Findings from Lambeth, London, UK
Goodman, Anna, Anthony A. Laverty, Jamie Furlong, and Rachel Aldred. Findings (June 2023)

Review and meta-analysis of council traffic data monitoring reports from 46 LTN schemes in 11 London boroughs. There was an average reduction of 815 vehicles a day, outweighing an increase of 82 vehicles a day on boundary roads. 46.9% average reduction in traffic on streets within LTN zones.
Changes in motor traffic inside London’s LTNs and on boundary roads
Active Travel Academy; Asa Thomas, Rachel Aldred  (2023)

Research paper
Review of impact of traffic removal on congestion and surrounding streets. Findings of over 70 case studies of roadspace reallocation from eleven countries suggest significant reductions in overall traffic levels can occur.
Disappearing traffic? The story so far. Municipal Engineer. 151 (1), pp.13-22.
Cairns, S., Atkins, S. and Goodwin, P. (2002)

Research paper
Generalised difference in differences used to examine effects of LTN. Found LTNs reduced NO2 both within intervention areas (5.7%) and in boundary areas (8.9%) and traffic volumes were reduced by 58.2% within LTNs and by 13.4% at LTN boundary sites in Islington, London.
Evaluation of low traffic neighbourhood (LTN) impacts on NO2 and traffic. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, Volume 113
Xiuleng Yang, Emma McCoy, Katherine Hough, Audrey de Nazelle (2022)

Facts Sheet
How walking and cycling can help reduce congestion in our cities.
Walking, Cycling and Congestion: 15 Quick Facts for Cities, FLOW Project (Horizon 2020 Project)

Research paper
Small-scale road closure schemes are likely to cause much displacement of traffic, and little if any traffic reduction or modal shift. To achieve those objectives, road closure schemes need to be implemented over a wider area.
Disappearing Traffic? An Evaluation of Pedestrianisation in Taunton Town Centre.
Melia, S. and Calvert, T. (2020) University of the West of England.

  • Injuries

Research paper
LTNs reduce injury risks across all modes inside the neighbourhood, without negative impacts at the boundary.
The Impact of Introducing Low Traffic Neighbourhoods on Road Traffic Injuries
Laverty, Anthony A, Rachel Aldred, and Anna Goodman. Findings (January, 2021)

Reducing Traffic

Opinion piece
The environmental, medical and social reasons why drastic action has to be taken against the motor vehicle in London
There is no ‘war on cars’ in London, but perhaps it is time for one (Part 1 and Part 2)
Jon Burke (February, 2021)

Opinion piece
Argument on why it’s necessary to bring the age of car dominance to an end.
Action needed to reduce traffic
William Petty (January, 2021)


An accessible, thorough guide on the basic principles of inclusive cycling.
A Guide to Inclusive Cycling, 4th edition, Wheels for Wellbeing (2020)

Research paper
Findings of a large positive effect of infrastructure provision on the volume of bicycle traffic.
Bikeability and the induced demand for cycling
Mogens Fosgerau, Mirosława Łukawska, Mads Paulsen, and Thomas Kjær Rasmussen (2023)

School Streets

Focuses on School Streets as a practical and achievable measure to reduce children’s exposure to toxic air pollution and encourage active transport. Evidence shows that School Streets do not simply displace traffic but reduce it overall.
School Streets: Reducing children’s exposure to toxic air pollution and road danger, Possible and Mums for Lungs (January, 2021)

Resources for campaigners

Click on the image to download and share the social media content.

Low Traffic Neighbourhood Resources

Twitter assets

Instagram assets

Social media assets

Local groups

For more information on joining local groups:

Living Streets London website

Living Streets Local Groups

London Cycling Campaign website

London Cycling Campaign local area groups

Sustrans Healthy Streets officers

We want to help, offer information, and support groups who are campaigning for interventions in their local area, for example local groups interested in:

  • walking, cycling or public transport
  • clean air
  • climate emergency
  • school streets
  • healthy/safer streets
  • noise from traffic
  • wanting to implement parklets, cycle tracks or low traffic neighbourhoods

We’re very keen to support local campaigners, please get in touch if you are from any of these types of campaign groups in London.

Contact us via the Send us a message box, below.

Guidance for Professionals

Low Traffic Neighbourhoods

Best practice guide
2023 Liveable Neighbourhoods Best Practice Guide, produced by Landor LINKS and TfL

London Cycling Campaign (LCC) and Living Streets have created two companion guides.
Low Traffic Neighbourhoods: An Introduction For Policy Makers is a short introduction document for decision-makers.

A Guide to Low Traffic Neighbourhoods is designed to help officers, designers and others begin to understand some of the complexities, nuances and capabilities of the schemes in more detail.

Transport for London (TfL) has produced the Liveable Neighbourhoods Programme Guidance to give information to boroughs who are bidding for funding for long-term schemes that encourage walking, cycling and the use of public transport. 

London Cycling Campaign and Urban Movement have created a guide for local authority officers and consultants involved in the conception, design and delivery of highway schemes intended to make streets better for residents, businesses and indeed everyone. 

Life Saving Streets online event video, by The Urban Design Group ideasSPACE

20mph Speed Limits

Guidance from Transport for London (TfL) is aimed at those responsible for implementing specific speed reduction programmes on the TfL Road Network and local roads managed by the London boroughs.

School Streets

Hackney Council has created a guide to help councils across the UK replicate its successful School Streets, which ban motor traffic outside schools at opening and closing times.

Sustrans also offers their engineers, urban designers and engagement specialists to work with schools, communities and local authorities to provide advice and resources to implement School Streets.

Prioritising cycling

The Bernard van Leer Foundation and BYCS have created a guide to inspire policy and planning changes that are advantageous to young children, caregivers, families, cyclists, and city residents in general.

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